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No matter how many hours I spent rereading physics principles, I couldn’t keep the equations straight. Like many students, I was going at it wrong. Reviewing course notes is the most popular study approach (in a recent Student Health 101 survey, 85 percent of respondents said they do this). But research shows it doesn’t necessarily work—unless you’re reviewing those notes the right way. Fortunately, a vast field of science devoted to memory and retaining information has given us more effective strategies for academic success, and some are pretty surprising.

Instead of highlighting and underlining material—which studies suggest does not boost learning or test performance—come at it actively. Here’s how:

Short-term fixes for when your test is next week

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1  Ask yourself questions about your material

“[Y]ou create a better understanding, which leads to better memory and learning,” said Mark McDaniel, co-author of Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning (Belknap Press, 2014), in Vox.

2  Sketch out diagrams and flow charts

Illustrations promote deeper learning, especially when they draw connections between concepts, according to a 2003 study in Learning and Instruction.

3  Use flashcards

Flash cards help you identify your strengths and weaknesses, directing you toward the areas that need more of your attention, according to a 1998 study at King’s College, London. Don’t drop a card when you get the answer right. “Studies show that keeping the correct item in the deck and encountering it again is useful,” said Dr. McDaniel in Vox.

4  Take frequent practice tests

“The biggest surprise to many people is that taking a test on something—having to retrieve it from memory—leads to much greater retention on a test given later than restudying the information does,” says Henry Roediger, another co-author of Make It Stick.

5  No cramming

Spreading out your study sessions gives your memories time to consolidate, according to a 2009 study in Applied Cognitive Psychology. During long study sessions, take frequent breaks, and focus your eyes on distant objects to alleviate eye fatigue.

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And don’t forget to…

6  Switch up your studying HQ

Mixing up where you study (e.g., transferring from the library to the café) can help you remember your material, according to a 2008 study in Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Studying in similar locations to where you will take the tests (i.e., classrooms) may help you retrieve the information when you need it.

7  Grab a tea or coffee

Caffeine intake can boost memory recall up to a day later, according to a 2014 study in Nature. But don’t sip beyond 3 p.m., because that messes with your sleep. Erratic sleep hours will sabotage your studying efforts, according to Neuroscientist (2006).

8  Eat veggies

The week of a big test, make sure your diet is balanced and high in fiber. In a 2011 study at the University of Oxford, UK, students who avoided high-fat, low-carb diets in favor of balanced, fibrous meals up to a week before a big exam ultimately performed better.

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Long-term fixes for when life is a series of tests

9  Relish your sleep and physical activity

Regularly getting full nights helps us better retain information and consolidate memories, says a 2006 study in Neuroscientist. Don’t even think about waking up early to cram; this disrupts the REM sleep that solidifies memory. Also, take the scenic walk to class: Regular physical activity boosts cognitive function, according to Neurochemistry International (2001).

10  Practice a musical instrument

People who regularly practice a musical instrument tend to outperform those who don’t in tests of memory and cognitive ability, according to Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014).

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Article sources

Henry L. Roediger, PhD, professor of psychology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(1), 81–90. Retrieved from https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Inside_the_Black_Box_184495_7.pdf

Born, J., Rasch, B., & Gais, S. (2006). Sleep to remember. Neuroscientist, 12(5), 410–424. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16957003

Borota, D., Murray, E., Keceli, G., Chang, A., et al. (2014). Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature, 17(1), 201–203. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n2/full/nn.3623.html

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Carey, B.  (2010, September 6). Forget what you know about good study habits. The New York Times. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/health/views/07mind.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M., et al. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Association for Psychological Science, 14(1), 4–58. Retrieved from http://psi.sagepub.com/content/14/1/4.full?ijkey=Z10jaVH/60XQM&keytype=ref&siteid=sppsi

Holloway, C., Cochlin, L., Emmanuel, Y., Murray, A., et al. (2011). A high-fat diet impairs cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism and cognitive function in healthy human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(4), 748–755. Retrieved from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/93/4/748.full

Kornell, N. (2009). Optimising learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective than cramming. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 1297–1317. Retrieved from http://sites.williams.edu/nk2/files/2011/08/Kornell.2009b.pdf

Nutley, S., Darki, F., & Klingberg, T. (2014). Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 926. Retrieved from http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00926/abstract

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105–119. Retrieved from http://psi.sagepub.com/content/9/3/105.abstract

Radak, Z., Kaneko, T., Tahara, S., Nakamoto, H., et al. (2001). Regular exercise improves cognitive function and decreases oxidative damage in rat brains. Neurochemistry International, 38(1), 17–23. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10913684

Stromberg, J. (2015, January 16). Re-reading is inefficient. Here are 8 tips for studying smarter. Vox. Retrieved from http://www.vox.com/2014/6/24/5824192/study-smarter-learn-better-8-tips-from-memory-researchers

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Maria Yagoda graduated from Yale in 2012. Her work has appeared in Jezebel, The New York Times online, Al Jazeera America, and The Philadelphia Inquirer.